“The Same is Lame!”

"The Same is Lame!"
“The Same is Lame!”
I recently spotted a bus ad for the Uniqlo retail chain, sporting the image of Pharrell Williams wearing a hat with the slogan “The Same Is Lame.”

Right away, that got me thinking about the V in SAVI – Variety – and my efforts to get my students see each and every phrase as an opportunity to communicate what is unique and different about that phrase when compared to its predecessors.

I describe the difference between work that is thoughtfully differentiated phrase by phrase and work that is delivered with a general wash of attitude as being like the difference between shishkebab and applesauce.

Applesauce – good for toddlers, bad for singing actors!
In a dish of applesauce, every bite tastes the same as every other bite, and Same is Lame.

Contrast, change, difference – these are things that attract attention, that make us curious, that light up the circuits in our brains. The nervous system is aroused by change, and conversely, it is lulled and deadened by repetition.

That’s why I advise my students to Always Be Choosing, and Always Be Changing. These, for me, are the ABC’s of singing acting. By “always,” I don’t mean every single instant, since that would produce nothing but chaos. However, every single ding affords an optimal opportunity for choosing and changing.

Making a choice is good. Making the same choice over and over is a problem, though, and Pharrell will tell you why: Same is Lame.

There’s no tunes like show tunes!

GGuideI’m feeling particularly inspired after listening to the soundtrack of this year’s Tony Award winner for Best Musical, A Gentleman’s Guide to Love and Murder. From the first seconds of the recording, my theatrical Spidey-senses were tingling: this year’s Best Musical features honest-to-god show tunes! No emo indie rock, no recycled jukebox grooves, but brilliantly original theater music with dense, intricately rhymed lyrics, distinctly articulated rhythms, and a bright, colorful orchestral palette. (And did I mention the legit singing?) A big shout out to composer-lyricist Steven Lutvak and his collaborator, librettist and co-lyricist Robert L. Freedman, with mad props also to venerable orchestrator Jonathan Tunick, for their accomplishments.

Of course, almost any kind of music can be “theater music.” This year’s Tony for best score and best orchestrations went to Jason Robert Brown, whose score for The Bridges of Madison County is equally distinguished and equally theatrical, though it’s as different from Gentleman’s Guide as chalk from cheese. The other nominees included Beautiful (Carole King’s pop hits, theatricalized with bio-jukebox arrangements), After Midnight (jazz standards fresh from the Harlem scene) and Aladdin (Disney middlebrow maestro Alan Menken, in collaboration with Howard Ashman, Chad Beguelin and Sir Tim Rice). There could scarcely be a more eclectic collection of musical styles than these, but they all have something in common: the songs are dramatic events, delineating the characters and supporting the story.

Yes, theater music is marvelously diverse, and the shows that excite me these days reflect that phenomenon: at one end of the spectrum, Natasha, Pierre and the Great Comet of 1818, Fun Home and Gabriel Kahane’s The Ambassador, slated for a stage production at BAM this fall; at the other, Kiss Me Kate, which I directed this spring, and The Student Prince, which I’ve been excavating this summer with the idea of developing a contemporary college musical around it.

886837-001It makes things hard for the singing actor. Most definitely, you need big ears as well as an open mind; you never know what the next potential gig will call for. Over the years, I’ve preached the gospel of versatility to my students: explore as many styles as you can, and work on the ones that you find an affinity for, practicing until your expression in that style becomes absolutely authentic. Load up your iPod and your Rdio playlist with all sorts of music, theatrical and non-, and listen up!

The choice of Gentleman’s Guide as Best Musical offers some reassurance that the type of theater music I’ve always loved hasn’t gone entirely out of favor. And the SAVI Singing Actor will recognize that nearly any song can be an opportunity to tell a story, and has the tools to communicate a dramatic event by creating expressive behavior while singing.

Full disclosure: As composer and lyricist for more than a dozen musicals, the SAVI Savant gets pretty opinionated about show tunes, but he considers that an asset, not a liability. Got your own opinions? Leave a comment below!

Top tips from award-winning actor Forrest McClendon

Wild With HappyActor Forrest McClendon would be the first person to tell you he’s blessed. A chance call from a casting director led him to a leading role in The Scottsboro Boys, a musical by Kander and Ebb helmed by Susan Stroman. The success of that show is now part of history, and also part of his story – the transfer to Broadway, the Tony nomination, the regional theater productions, the London premiere at the Young Vic, and now, a West End opening scheduled for this fall. In between his Scottboro forays, Forrest has flexed his artistic muscles pursuing his twin passions: Shakespeare (Othello, Brutus) and new works (currently, Colman Domingo’s Wild With Happy at Baltimore’s Center Stage, photo right). Add to that the fact that he was just chosen as one of ten Lunt-Fontanne Fellows for 2014, a program that recognizes “the most accomplished regional-theater actors in the country,” and you’ll understand why I say the man is blessed.

I’ve been blessed to know Forrest for many years, and was lucky enough to convince him to come to Philadelphia to join the musical theater faculty at the University of the Arts twenty years ago. The man is unquestionably a compelling educator, and considers the work he does teaching and mentoring young artists to be as important as the work he does onstage; for him, these twin endeavors are two sides of the same coin. In honor of his recent honors, I decided to offer these two top tips from Forrest’s playbook:

1. Choices.

Making choices is the heart of the actor’s work, and no one embraces this notion more fervently than Forrest. “Always Be Choosing” is the ABC of the SAVI System, but Forrest takes this idea as far as possible – to XYZ, that is. He uses an A-Z worksheet to develop choices for every character he plays; in a play where he portrays multiple roles, as he does so brilliantly in The Scottsboro Boys, every character gets the A-Z treatment. Among my favorites on the list are F (“family”), K (“keepsake”) and T (“theme song”). Z is for the character’s Zodiac sign, and X, provocatively enough, is for “xxx,” the element of sexuality and violence in the character. Forrest’s work on choice-making builds on the foundation of Stanislasvki’s “fundamental questions” and the idea that developing a rich and complex character is both a forensic and a creative process.

2. Lyrics.

Here’s a video clip from the fall of 2010 in which Forrest recounts his first encounter with composer John Kander, and Kander’s advice to him about singing a song.

“Above all,” admonished Kander, “put over this lyric!”

The phrase “put over [a] lyric” has a particular meaning in singer’s parlance; it means to sing, act and enunciate the text in a way that makes its meaning apparent for the listener. When the lyric has been successfully “put over,” it is sometimes said to have “landed,” in the way that a rock landing on your head or a spaceship landing in your back yard is impossible not to notice. Conversely, a flaw in the song or the performance can cause a lyric “not to land,” that is, to remain hard to understand when delivered in performance. Getting every moment in a song to “land” requires a deft collaboration between writer, composer, director and performer.

Forrest McClendon as the lawyer Samuel Leibowitz in The Scottsboro Boys
Forrest McClendon as the lawyer Samuel Leibowitz in The Scottsboro Boys

Whether “putting over” a song like “That’s Not The Way We Do Things” from The Scottsboro Boys or one of Othello’s monologues from Shakespeare, Forrest uses a combination of robust diction and vivid choice-making to make a lyric “land.”

In the SAVI Lexicon, I refer to this quality as “traction.” Forrest and I understand that a dramatic text has to move the listener from point A to point B, to move them to a place of greater understanding and greater empathy. In order to do this, the singer’s delivery must have force and direction. Think of using a pickup truck to drag a trailer out of a muddy hole where it’s gotten mired. That truck needs to have some traction – the ability to pull that trailer along, with force, in the desired direction.

It wasn’t just good fortune that led Tony voters to nominate Forrest as Best Supporting Actor in a Musical, or the Ten Chimneys Foundation to designate him a 2014 Lunt Fontanne Fellow. In both cases, the voters recognized an artist at work: someone who has put his formidable technique at the service of the stories he is passionate about telling.

5 things you can do to keep your singer-actor edge this summer

KristenIt’s summertime, and the living is easy!

Actually, summertime can be a challenging time for serious singing actors. During summer, all the normal routines seem to fly out the window. If you’re a student, that means classes and lessons are probably on hold. “No more pencils, no more books” – well, that may be what children chant in the summertime, but if you’re a serious singing actor – that is, someone who’s really committed to a journey of continuous growth and improvement – the lack of structure can feel disorienting, a bit of a letdown.

Or you may have a whole new schedule – a summer job (full-time or part-time), maybe in the theater, but maybe not. That means new people in authority, new routines, a new environment. Stimulating, yes, but easy? Probably not!

Either way, in the summertime it’s distressingly easy to lose your edge as a singing actor. Through the fall, the winter and the spring, you’ve trained like an Olympian, devoting countless hours to studying, preparing, practicing, rehearsing and performing. With the structured activity of classes, lessons and projects to spur you on and organize your time, you’re “gaining from your training,” acquiring greater mastery of techniques, skills and repertoire, going deeper and higher and bigger than you’ve ever gone.

Come the summer – big let-down, right? And after you’ve taken a break, had a bit of rest, visited the fridge once too often, you find yourself itching to get back to work.

Good news! There are plenty of things that you can do in the summertime to keep your edge. Even without a teacher, a class or a rehearsal to go to, there are things you can do at home (or pretty much anywhere) that will not only help you maintain crucial skills but keep you growing, exploring and discovering new things. Here’s a short list of five things you can do to keep your edge this summer:

1. Make the time.

Pick out times in the week you’re willing to dedicate to continued training. It doesn’t have to be a huge commitment – start small, with something you can manage easily. Three 30-minute time slots in your week. Put them on your calendar – not only when, but where. Make a date with yourself, and honor your commitment. Studies have shown that people who make a specific commitment about when and where they’ll practice are much likelier to actually practice; otherwise, your desire to practice hangs in the air like an unresolved chord, making you antsy and anxious for reasons you can’t quite put your finger on.

David CaeliTrack the time you put in in your calendar or journal, and give yourself some love when you stick to the plan. Or here’s an idea – find yourself a practice buddy, someone who’s as crazy as you are about singing acting. When you make your schedule, tell your plan to your buddy, and have them reciprocate. Then report your progress, truthfully, and support your buddy in their efforts to keep their own commitments. Social media tools like Facebook make it possible for you to have the same kind of support network you benefitted from during the school year.

2. Work it out.

The singing actor is like an Olympic athlete. Many of the skills that you need are the kind that are acquired through patient repetition over the long haul – in other words, you’ve got to train to gain, and if you don’t use it, you lose it. A comprehensive workout will get you going vocally, physically, emotionally, even in your face and eyes, so that you’re continuing to strengthen and tone those “organs of expression.” The SAVI Workout is a great place to start; it’s a proven sequence of activities that engage you fully, testing your expressive range, stamina and coordination. Use it with your favorite vocal exercises or pieces of songs you know.

Check out the SAVI Workout NOW!

Your workout should be intense but brief. You’ll gain more from ten or fifteen vigorous, focused minutes working through the steps of a structured workout than you will from the same amount of time spent purposelessly singing through songs or scales. If you’ve slotted half an hour into your day, devote at least ten of those minutes to working out. If it feels good, you don’t have to cut it short, but it’s better to establish a compact, steady routine than to go on a practice “binge” followed by a prolonged period of inactivity. Read more about conditioning and “train to gain” on the SAVI Singing Actor site.

3. Tell a story.

For the SAVI singing actor, it’s axiomatic: “When I sing, I will create behavior that communicates the dramatic event phrase by phrase.” That means that every song is a story, and your proficiency at turning SONGS into STORIES is the number-one skill you need to “communicate the dramatic event.” You can practice this with little more than your imagination and a place to write things down; a summer journal would be a cool tool to use for this, or a note-taking app like Evernote for your computer.

SAVI JournalPick a song, any song – one you heard on the radio or the internet, one that came up in conversation, one that you think you’d like to work on. Spend part of that practice time examining that song and looking for how to turn it into a story with you as the principal character. First, do the detective work, gathering the facts and details that will give an indication of the dramatic circumstances of your chosen song. Those facts will start to reveal a bigger picture, a situation or event where the singer is center stage. Use your artistic imagination to fill in the details, all the while looking for ways to make those circumstances vivid and meaningful for you personally. Trying writing a paragraph that begins, “This is a story about ….” or better yet, “This is a story about me.” The good news is, this is fun work that can occupy your thoughts any time, any where, and it’s valuable work you can do on any song.

If you missed it, I recently wrote about a new book called “Dramatic Circumstances” that is a great summer read and an inspiring guide for this kind of work.

4. Break it down.

If you haven’t discovered this yet for yourself, take it from me: you sing better when your work is specific, and that means you have to work “phrase by phrase.” Sounds pretty straightforward, yes? And yet it takes a while to get in the habit of breaking a song down, seeing it as a series of opportunities instead of a shapeless blob of mood. You’ve got to “ding it before you sing it” – that is, methodically examine the text of the song to determine where the phrases begin, the places where the opportunity to create behavior is especially strong. That means writing out your song lyric (hello, summer journal!) and marking up the text at the start of each phrase, or copying the individual phrases onto 3×5 cards. (I’ve got a video tutorial coming soon about this amazing and powerful technique!)

Juliana1pIf this talk of “dinging and singing” seems unfamiliar, you might want to read through some of the tutorial pages on the SAVI Singing Actor site that walk you through elements of the technique, like this page about specificity.

5. Go exploring.

Summertime offers a wonderful opportunities to experience something different, to change up your routine. Try singing using sounds you’ve never tried, in places you’ve never sung, at times of day you wouldn’t usually dream of singing. Sing songs that you’ve always loved, but make them different – sing a slow song fast, a happy song sad, a beautiful song crazy and weird. Sing songs by imitating and exaggerating the behavior of other performers you’ve seen on video, like a funhouse mirror, or like playing dress-up. Sing songs that aren’t from musicals, and songs from musicals you’ve never heard of. Sing to your dog, to the stars, to the video camera in your phone. Take big risks, make big mistakes, and enjoy the freedom that summertime brings. There’s never enough time to explore, but summertime gives you a big bonus in this department.

There you go, five things. Do them routinely, regularly, three days a week at least. Plan when and where you’ll do it, and log it when you do. Give your “organs of expression” a regular workout, along with your singer’s imagination and your detective skills. If you don’t use them, you’ll lose them!

The SAVI Savant writes weekly with tips, tools and insights for the serious singing actor. Sign up for the SAVI Singing Actor newsletter to get weekly updates by email. Did this article seem useful to you? Please leave a comment!

Bravo, Audra!

I originally wrote this a little over a year ago and posted it on my personal site, but it seems particularly relevant given Audra’s recent Tony Award triumph.

11audra-SUB-popupIn the spring of 2013, Audra MacDonald sang at Lincoln Center’s spring gala, and Stephen Holden from the New York Times was on hand to review her performance. I’m not surprised by his praise – I’m a fan, too, after all – but I was struck how some of his observations appear to reflect my own values about singing-acting.

Ms. McDonald’s soprano […] seemed to unfurl in ever-richer textures as she imbued songs with a sense of bursting possibility. The familiar songs “First You Dream,” from the Kander and Ebb show “Steel Pier,” and the Styne-Comden-Green ballad “Make Someone Happy” from “Do Re Mi,” were infused with the excitement of discovery, as if Ms. McDonald and the audience were together realizing how humble Broadway songs delivered with passion and intelligence could convey basic emotional truths.

Okay, so we’ll let “humble Broadway songs” pass without complaining that it’s a condescending remark. His reference to Audra’s “sense of bursting possibility” reminds me of a comment from composer Adam Guettel I read over a decade ago: “People like Audra have an innate instinct for the opportunities in a song.” Such opportunities inhere in classic Broadway showtunes (“humble” or not), and “songs delivered with passion and intelligence [can indeed] convey basic emotional truths.” Near the end, Holden observes that:

One of Ms. McDonald’s greatest gifts is to find the story inside the song and deliver it with immediacy and clarity, in a voice that finds a flexible, intuitive balance between storytelling and singing — a defining voice of our time.

Indeed, I agree that Audra’s approach to singing-acting – which he describes with words like “immediacy,” “clarity,” “intelligence,” “passion,” and, above all, a “flexible, intuitive balance between storytelling and singing” – is definitive, the gold standard for integrated singing-acting to which I hope all my students aspire.

No One Is Alone

The work of the singing actor is a lonely business.

Sure, it might not seem that way at first. Singing actors are often in shows, either rehearsing or performing, and we feel ourselves come to life in the company of our fellow artists.

In RehearsalAnd they’re often in classes, either attending college or high school or enrolled in classes for continuing professional development.

But those hours account for only a small fraction of most of our lives, and during the remaining hours, we still feel a need to connect. It’s an instinct that all humans have, and singing actors are no different. We long to commune with our tribe, to share the latest news, to feel a part of something larger and greater than ourselves.

In a classroom or college experience, powerful personal connections get made. That’s what the past weeks have been like for me, as students in the classes I taught came together weekly not only to acquire new skills and demonstrate their growing mastery but, equally importantly, to connect with fellow artists-in-training. The fellowship, the sharing of experiences, the commiseration and the celebration are a powerful part of the college experience.

But what about summer vacation? What happens to the connection then? Sure, there’s the occasional (or not-so-occasional) Facebook post from your friends, the Instagram photos of your most recent foodie splurge, the tweet from the beach. But for the most part, the work of the singing actor is a lonely business when you’re not in school or in rehearsal. Summertime is one time of year when you are likely to find yourself with time on your hands.

What if there was a way to maintain that connection? To continue to engage on a weekly basis with thought provoking material that was relevant to your growth as an artist, and to connect with fellow artists as they pursue their version of the same adventure?

My weekly posts and emails are intended to help make that happen. Each week I publish useful, provocative information that I think will be meaningful to serious singing actors – material that I’ve culled from my own years of experience making musicals and teaching young artists to perform successfully in them. As you read each week’s posts, my dream is that you will realize that you are not alone, that others are pursuing the same dream as you, and that there are ways that you can continue to learn and grow and thrive even when you’re not in the classroom or in rehearsal.

And let’s not forget, you have the chance to connect online. Perhaps you’ll feel inspired to make a comment on this week’s post. Or you see that others have done the same, and that moves you to chime in and add your own two cents. You find people in other cities, other states, other countries that share your passion, people pondering the same questions and issues that are vexing you, and you learn from their points of view.

My vision of the SAVI Singing Actor site is to provide a place where that can happen. It’s not just a platform for me to broadcast my own ideas about singing acting, though that’s one important feature of the site. I know I have a tremendous amount of valuable information to share; I’ve seen generations of students benefit from my instruction, and nothing brings me greater pleasure than seeing young artists thrive and grow.

But also, it’s a place where we can connect as fellow humans and artists passionately engaged in the same pursuit. My subscriber list includes both students and teachers of musical theater in many countries. What a great community to be able to connect with!

In Act Two Into The Woods, Stephen Sondheim reminds us, “You are not alone, no one is alone.” It’s a message that resonates powerfully for those characters, but we’re all seeking our way through some kind of woods, aren’t we? As a subscriber to the SAVI Singing Actor, you’ll feel a little less alone, and a little more connected to the kinds of community and information that you’ll benefit from.

Dramatic Circumstances – a new book by William Wesbrooks

Screen Shot 2014-06-09 at 4.04.44 PMOnce upon a time, there was a professor who taught singing actors about how to perform songs. He worked in a big city at a university with a big reputation, and many students came to study with him. He loved his work; he loved being able to help students, and the things he taught them were genuinely helpful. After awhile, he thought to himself, “Maybe I could help more students if I were to write about the ways I train my students in a book.”

Yes, this is my story, but it’s also the story of Bill Wesbrooks, Director of Vocal Performance at the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development at NYU. The difference between Bill and me is, he’s actually written the book. It’s called “Dramatic Circumstances,” it was published a few months ago, and it’s a great addition to the literature of singer-actor training.

Books about Singing-Acting

Since I began teaching thirty-five years ago, a surprising number of books have been published about the training of the singing actor. The two most prolific authors in the field are H. Wesley Balk and David Craig, both of whom passed away around the end of the millennium but each of whom managed to publish three enormously valuable books in the last years of their lives. Balk’s “The Complete Singer-Actor: Training for Music Theater” appeared in 1977, and though Balk was an opera director who worked chiefly with opera singers, the pedagogical principles he has identified and the exercises he has invented remain valuable to performers in all genres of musical theater. David Craig’s “On Singing Onstage” (1978) is an equally important early contribution to the field; since Craig is profoundly attuned to the Broadway repertoire, singers of show tunes are likely to find his work more immediately relevant. Balk went on to complete two more books, “Performing Power” (1985) and “The Radiant Performer” (1991) before he passed away in 2003, and Craig followed up his initial effort with “On Performing” (1987) and “A Performer Prepares” (1993) before his demise in 1998.

In more recent years, the onslaught of books for the singing actor has continued. The most impressive and comprehensive contribution to the literature in our own era is Joe Deer and Rocco DalVera’s “Acting in Musical Theatre” (2008), which is already headed for a second edition and being translated for the Asian market. All in all, by my count, more than a dozen books that have been published during the years since I began teaching in this field. In fact, Bill Wesbrooks’ volume is one of two to be published in the past few months; the other, “Stanislavski Never Wore Tap Shoes,” is the work of Burke Moses, a Broadway performer who began his performing career around the time that Balk and Craig were publishing their first books. (And yet the promotional copy for Moses’ book begins, “Finally, a book about acting on the musical stage!” “Finally?”)

Given this impressive array of books (not to mention the shelf space they occupy in my library) and the collective insights of their authors, I find myself wondering: Is there really something else that needs to be said?

A Focus on Story

Wesbrooks’ response to the challenge is to go deep rather than broad. He chooses a provocative focus for his teaching and his writing, digging deeply into the importance of STORY and how a student is well served to examine each song thoughtfully and imaginatively to determine the true story being told and the personal significance of that story. The subtitle of his book is, “On Acting, Singing, and Living Inside the Stories We Tell.”

In his preface, Bill quotes the English author Philip Pullman, who said, “After nourishment, shelter and companionship, stories are the thing we need most in the world.” Reading this immediately made me think of Dan Pink’s “A Whole New Mind,” a provocative 2005 study about moving from the “Information Age” to the “Conceptual Age.” In it, Pink identifies “Story” as one of six essential aptitudes that need to be mastered in order to flourish in the complex new era we currently inhabit.

“The essence of persuasion, communication and self-understanding has become the ability also to fashion a compelling narrative,” observes Pink. Quoting Don Norman’s “Things That Make Us Smart,” he wants us to understand that “[s]tories are important cognitive events, for they encapsulate, into one compact package, information, knowledge, context and emotion.”

Bill Wesbrooks is very wise to focus on the importance of story. It shows that he is attuned to the needs of artists and audiences in the present day. It also connects him to a rich tradition of actor training that stretches back to the seminal work of Konstantin Stanislavski, whose goal was to train actors so they could live truthfully under imaginary circumstances. Wesbrooks’ “dramatic circumstance process” owes a great deal to Stanislavski, and the fact that it is not wholly original doesn’t make it any less valuable. By describing this work in an organized and thoughtful way with concrete examples, Wesbrooks shows the aspiring singing actor “how to take specific steps to organize your thoughts so that you will be able to live more fully inside any story you choose to tell.” The payoff is a “new kind of freedom and clarity” evident in the work of students willing to employ this procedure diligently.

“It has been my experience that artists of all disciplines seek, in the pursuit of their art, two fundamental experiences: freedom and truth. … Freedom is the sensation of having liberated yourself from the limitations of self-consciousness that can constrict you as you study, practice, rehearse, and perform. Ultimate freedom is freedom from fear. … Truth is allowing yourself to see, with unadorned clarity, what you know about yourself and what you have learned in the course of your life about human behavior,. and then – and this is the key – having the courage to take action based on that knowledge.”

Practice Makes Perfect

Mirror Canon-2Readers of The SAVI Singing Actor know that I am very interested in the importance of practice as a tool for developing technique and achieving mastery, and Wesbrooks has some valuable words to contribute on that topic. He cites a British study that concluded the only statistically significant factor that had any impact on musicians’ success was the amount of time that had spent practicing: “It is a fact: the more you practice, the better you will get. [But] figuring out just how to practice is one of the biggest challenges most performers face.” In my experience, I have found this statement to be profoundly true, and one of the things my students seem to benefit from most is instruction in what and how to practice. I wrote about it most recently in an article called “Making The Most of Practice Time.”

Since singing-acting involves both a rich inner life and the outward expression of that inner state through behavior, there are many points of view about whether singing-acting training should use an “inside-out” approach or an “outside-in” one. Wesbrooks’ view is similar to mine, and to the approach that Wes Balk developed in his three books:

“To think of your emotional life as somehow ‘inside’ while your physical life is ‘outside’ is already a perception that denies the complex interaction between the various parts of your mind and your body. Your emotional self and your physical self are forever intertwined and totally dependent on one another. … Of course you want to find a true emotional connection in your work, and the dramatic circumstance process is the most effective way I have found to bring that about. Even so, emotionally connected work will be diminished, and your ability to sustain it will be seriously compromised, if your body and voice are not at the same time functioning both efficiently and effectively.”

A Fine Addition to the Literature

WesbrooksBill Wesbrooks has written a fine book. He is an intelligent, humane teacher, dedicated to his students’ growth; his calm, reassuring demeanor and generosity of spirit shine forth on every page. The work he describes in the pages of his book is important work that every singing actor needs to undertake.

It doesn’t diminish Bill’s accomplishment to point out that he clearly stands on the shoulders of others who have gone before him; the same can be said for nearly everyone in every field of endeavor. Stanislavski’s influence is evident, not just in the types of work and the procedures that Bill encourages his students to employ, but in the way he has chosen to present much of his work in the form of dialog between teacher and student, much as Stanislavski did. The seminal work of David Craig, especially his 1978 book “On Singing Onstage,” also appears to have influenced Wesbrooks’ approach; the forensic gathering of information from the song’s text that Craig calls the “One” and the personalized “This is a story about me” approach employed in his “Two” are a foundation on which Wesbrooks has skillfully built.

This is a book which other teachers of singing acting will want to study, so they can incorporate Wesbrooks” “dramatic circumstances process” in their own studio practice. Students will also benefit from his lessons, providing they take the time to peruse the material thoughtfully and put it into practice methodically. We are, I fear, a quick-fix culture, one reliant on the charismatic influence of experts, and Wesbrooks’ approach is not a hard-sell one. I admire that about his book, but I don’t know whether it will win him many acolytes.

On that theme, then, here’s another story to conclude this post:

Once upon a time, there was a young woman who loved to sing songs. She dreamed of success on the musical stage, and thought that the grandest possible thing would be to get a job to perform in a Broadway show. She knew that, in order to do this successfully, she needed to get some training, because as much as she loved singing songs, she had a feeling that there were certain skills that she needed to have to sing them better, to sing them in a way that would give her performances greater impact. She wanted to attend college at a university in a big city where she knew she would learn more about these things, but the college was very expensive and the big city was far away.

And then one day she stumbled upon a book called “Dramatic Circumstances,” written by a teacher who taught at the school she where she longed to study. Reading this book, she could imagine what it was like to attend his class. The book offered detailed accounts of the teacher’s interactions with the students in his class, accounts of the work they did exploring songs and preparing to perform them. In the book, the teacher sounded like a kind and wise man, and the students in the book all got great benefit from his lessons.

What happened next?

(1) She followed the instructions and the procedures described in the book, and discovered that she sang better when she prepared her songs that way. She felt happier and more successful.


(2) She read the book and felt even more determined to study with this professor. She was fortunate enough to get into NYU, even though it meant borrowing thousands of dollars, and graduated with a rich understanding of the craft of singing acting – and a substantial debt.


(3) She ordered the book from Amazon.com and read the first pages of it, but after a few minutes, her attention began to wander. She reached for her mobile phone, checked her text messages, looked at the new posts that had appeared in her Facebook news feed, and forgot to continue reading til later. When she went back to the book, she thought the things in it sounded interesting, and she meant to try them out eventually, but she never got around to it.

Which of these three scenarios seems most likely to you?

Are there books that have made a significant contribution to your training and development? Tell me about them in the comments section of this post!

June Is Bustin’ Out All Over

The month of June has just begun. Out in my garden on this first day of June, raspberries are fruiting in rude profusion. Lavender that I thought had been killed off by an unusually harsh winter has not only sent out new leaves but its first fragrant flowers. Roses on a neighbor’s bush are spilling over my back fence, triumphing over her futile efforts to prune it back last fall. Early lettuce and radishes have already found their way from the garden to my table. The first day of June is a feast for the senses, delighting the eye, the nose and the tongue.

All of which puts me in mind of Oscar Hammerstein’s lyric from the 1945 musical Carousel:

JuneJune is bustin’ out all over,
All over the meadow and the hill!
Buds’re bustin’ outa bushes,
And the rompin’ river pushes
Ev’ry little wheel that wheels beside a mill.

June is bustin’ out all over.
The feelin’ is gettin’ so intense,
That the young Virginia creepers
Hev been huggin’ the bejeepers
Outa all the mornin’-glories on the fence.

Because it’s June!
June, June, June–
Jest because it’s June– June–June!

(Read the complete lyric here and listen to the soundtrack of the 1994 Broadway revival, sung by Shirley Verrett with a much younger Audra McDonald in the role of Carrie Pipperidge.)

I suppose you can tell I’m really feeling this June thing. But chances are you’re not. If you’ve thought about this song at all, I’m guessing you probably think it’s an old-fashioned lyric sung in by an old lady with an old-fashioned voice. The language that I find so original and full of character (“huggin’ the bejeepers outa all the mornin’-glories on the fence”) might just as easily be seen by you as quaint; likewise, the colloquial regional dialect (the dropped g’s, the phonetic spellings like “hev” and “outa”) that is a trademark of so many Hammerstein lyrics. The music is definitely old-school, a vigorous polka tempo, and even if you go for this kind of thing, you could find yourself succumbing to the temptation to deliver the song with generalized gusto but without much attention to the particular images and details that make it fresh.

To sing Hammerstein’s lyric (indeed, to sing any lyric), you must awaken yourself to the truth it conveys, and that means awakening your senses. In the song, Nettie Fowler is describing the sights and sensations of an early June day in Maine, and the joy that stirs in the heart to know with certainty that the rough winter is past and the next few months will bring a bounty of seasonal pleasures. Hammerstein was a man of the land, making his home on a farm in Doylestown (not far from me) where he took refuge from the slings and arrows of his show business career in Manhattan, and the delight he takes from nature is evident in this and many other lyrics he wrote.

It’s a challenge worthy of a fresh June morning: how can the SAVI singing actor breathe life into this classic musical theater song? What words of wisdom can the coach or director offer to guide the singing actor to a successful performance?

Stanislavski’s “six fundamental questions” are an excellent place to start:

  • Who am I
  • Where am I?
  • When am I here?
  • Why do I come here?
  • What am I here to do?
  • How will I do it?

Getting answers to these fundamental questions will help us dispel the “old lady” stereotype, for starters. The libretto tells us the character of Nettie in Carousel is the proprietor of “Nettie Fowler’s Spa.” The twenty-first century listener may think a “spa” is a posh health resort, but Nettie’s spa, a weathered clapboard building on the Maine coast, appears to be more like a diner, a place where the hungry watermen of the town gather for their morning coffee and donuts after rising before dawn to dig for clams. Judging from the action of the scene, Nettie is the hard-working cook, supported by a couple younger women (including Carrie Pipperidge) who serve and clean up. But that doesn’t make her an old lady.

Christine Johnson, who originated the role of Nettie when The Theatre Guild premiered Carousel in 1945, was in her early thirties, as was Claramae Turner, who played the role in the 1956 film adaptation of the musical. A woman in her early thirties still has plenty of vigor and sensual appetite, though she is undoubtedly more mature and worldly-wise than girls like Julie and Carrie (teenagers or in their early twenties). More recent audiences may have seen Patricia Routledge as Nettie in the National Theatre’s landmark 1992 revival, directed by Nick Hytner, or Shirley Verrett in the 1994 Broadway transfer of that same production; both of these actresses were in their sixties when they played the role. What led Hytner to re-conceive the role as being several generations older than the authors originally envisioned her? I think it’s at least partially about the vocal style the role requires, especially in the song “You’ll Never Walk Alone,” a song of advice and consolation that Nettie sings to Julie after the ghastly suicide of her husband, Billy. Nettie traditionally sings in a mature “legit” mezzo-soprano or contralto that, to our present-day ears, is the old-fashioned sound of an old lady. But I think there’s great dramatic value in seeing Nettie as someone in the prime of her life rather than its twilight.

In the scene leading up to “June,” the hungry watermen arrive at the spa, demanding their doughnuts and apple turnovers, and the girls of the spa rebuff them with spunky flirtatiousness, scolding the boys for their impatient rudeness. When Nettie arrives with coffee and doughnuts, the girls complain that she appears to be giving in to the rowdy boys’ demands, but she is like an indulgent, affectionate mom, generously acknowledging that boys always act this way at this time of year. “It’s like unlockin’ a door,” she says, “and all the crazy notions they kep’ shet up fer the winter come whoopin’ out into the sunshine.” Cue the orchestra, as she starts with a lyric that describes March’s blustery weather and how the promise of spring has kept everyone waiting through April and May for the inevitable arrival of June and its fertile promise.

Answering the fundamental questions, while important and terribly useful, doesn’t give us all the information we need. After all, the SAVI singing actor’s job is to “create behavior that communicates the dramatic event phrase by phrase.” It’s crucial that you look at the song in this detailed way, phrase by phrase, paying particular attention to the opportunities each phrase offers and the ways in which is may differ from previous phrases.

Taking this kind of close look quickly shows that “June” is about more than little green shoots stirring in the garden. Turns out that the animal kingdom is equally stirred by the changing seasons, and that evidence of fecund eagerness can be seen among the rams and ewes in the field and the fishes in the sea. Nettie goes on to acknowledge the effect that the changing seasons have on the men and women of the community, first evidenced in affectionate behavior – “Ma is getting kittenish with Pap” – but soon apparent in the appearance of carnal appetites, as the watermen “are payin’ court” to the ladies because they “hanker for a comfort they can only find in port.” Carrie chimes in with a stanza about “lady fish… wishin’ that a male would come and grab her by the gills,” and Nettie’s final stanza conjures up visions of couples on a beach:

“From Penobscot to Augusty, all the boys are feelin’ lusty
And the girls ain’t even puttin’ up a fight.”

Holy moley! This is no vague pastorale, no perky parade of pretty pictures sung to an oom-pah beat. It’s practically an orgy by the time we get to the dance break! Each image has a particularity about it, a vivid clarity and specificity that unfolds with a logical progression the singer needs to understand in order to “put over” the dramatic event of the song for the listener.

So: a specific understanding of the dramatic event and the phrase-by-phrase unfolding of the lyric is essential if you want to put the song over with freshness and particularity. Along with understanding, though, you’re going to need musical theater technique. In particular, you’ll need strong diction to deliver this lyric in a way that takes full advantage of its onomatopoeia. You’ll need an easy, unbraced physicality with alert senses, always a challenge for the singer, whose tendency is to brace up in a state of “fight or flight” readiness when it’s time to belt out a big number. And you’ll need to be prepared to create behavior with your face, eyes, voice and body that helps to tell the story, making specific adjustments in your behavior at the onset of each new phrase to help the spectator understand how the current phrase differs from the preceding phrase. All these attributes can be cultivated through patient, persistent, purposeful practice, and when you’ve got a strong singing-acting technique to “put over the lyric” and support the unfolding dramatic event, the results will be “fresh and alive,” just like a June day on the coast of Maine.

The SAVI Savant loves musicals and offers techniques, tips and tools for the serious singing actor. Like what you’ve just read? Leave a comment, and head over to The SAVI Singing Actor website (www.savisingingactor.com) to sign up for my weekly newsletter.

Say the words!

That’s it, folks – the single most powerful piece of advice I can give a singer attempting to interpret a song in performance.

Say the words!

Time and again, my students have told me that when they’re feeling stumped by a song, lost in a fog of moods and sounds and prior interpretations that present an overwhelming array of options, the simple act of speaking the lyric of a song aloud has been enormously beneficial.

I’m not talking about mechanical, robotic recitation. I mean, say them in a way that seeks to make sense of them, to discover their content and what they were intended to communicate. Speak them like a monolog, without regard for the rhythms and patterns the the musical setting imposes on them. Speak them with emotion, as if you were having a conversation with somebody.

It usually helps to write them out, separate from the music, and without regard for the line breaks that make them look like verse on the page. Write them out one phrase at a time. Put each phrase on its own line on the page, and every time you detect the beginning of a new thought or impulse, begin a new line.

Even better, get yourself some index cards, and write each phrase on its own card. For each new line of the song, ask yourself, is this a continuation of the previous phrase, or is it a new thought? If it’s a new thought, what makes it different from the previous thought? If it’s a new thought, it goes on a new card; if not, continue writing on the current card. It’s that simple.

Some of your cards may only have a word or two on them. That’s fine.

Now read the text of your song, starting with the first card. As you get to the end of the text on your first card, move it to the left of the pile of cards so that you can see the phrase you’ve completed and the next phrase side by side, the first phrase on the left, the next on the right. Use this as an occasion to notice what’s different about the two cards, as well as what’s the same. For the purposes of acting the song, the differences are more important than the similarities; the similarities will help give the experience of listening to your song some structure for the listener, but it’s up to you to make the differences clear.

As you say the words aloud, use your “actor voice.” Pay attention to the sounds of the words, the vowels and the consonants, the way the lyricist uses sounds to create meaning. Taste the words, savor the sensations that they make. (In the musical Sweet Charity, the character for whom the show is named says the phrase “fickle finger of fate,” over and over, and then observes, “Feels good. It cools the mouth.”) Take full advantage of onomatopoeia, the technique that writers use to make things sound like what they mean.

Time and again, I’ve seen students stumble and falter in their efforts to do this. They make a funny face and complain that it feels weird to hear the words without the tune. Maybe it’s weird, but it’s definitely worth it, and after you’ve practiced it a couple of times, it doesn’t feel weird any more.

Trevor Nunn, during the first rehearsals for the National Theatre’s revival of Oklahoma, had the cast read the entire text of the musical, including all the song lyrics, without singing. “Oh, what a beautiful morning” had to be read as a dramatic text, and the actors had to examine this and every other line of the musical’s libretto in a search for a full and particular meaning of the text. It helped them to strip away the accumulated habits and traditions clinging to the songs and interpret them with freshness and specificity.

Yes, even songs that are familiar to you will benefit from this kind of examination. When you need to re-connect with the truthful core of a song that you’ve been rehearsing (even performing) for awhile, speaking the text with clarity and intention is a terrific tool to use.

It may feel weird at first, but it’s so worth it. Time and time again, I’ve seen it work. It’s a simple piece of advice, but a powerful one:

Say the words!

Give it a try, and leave me a comment below to let me know how it went!

Why does it matter if we do good work?

Singing today from the hymnal of Seth Godin:

As Jony Ive said, “When you realize how well you can make something, falling short, whether seen or not, feels like failure.”

Practice is not the answer here. Practice, the 10,000 hours thing, practice alone doesn’t produce work that matters. No, that only comes from caring. From caring enough to leap, to bleed for the art, to go out on the ledge, where it’s dangerous. When we care enough, we raise the bar, not just for ourselves, but for our customer, our audience and our partners.